Here is a token, partial, and (caveat!) amateur listing of the native flora and fauna of Seymour township, the bird life excepted (see separate bird list with at least 145 species of bird, June 2023), with some 435 species identified, a steady advance on the 114 first listed in 2004. Eight more reported by third parties are listed in italics (see CBCA records, below), including a black rat snake and a rosy maple moth noted by Rob Wybourn, and turtlehead by Carol Robertson, for a township running-total of at least 580 species, as of 14 June 2024, not counting 8 species of bird reported in Seymour, or in an adjacent township (Percy or Rawdon, say), but not as yet confirmed by the writer nor close naturalist associate, within the boundaries of Seymour.

If you like, you can search this page for species, and/or slide down this page to view the species lists. The bulk of this page comprises a series of lists, plus a few illustrations:

Numerous additional species are on record, e.g., spring wild flowers in Ferris park. Many other species, even common ones, have doubtless slipped from view, or are in areas I have yet to visit. Thus the pretty pickerelweed (Pontederia cordata) occurs in large rafts along Eels Creek, some 50 km to the north. I've seen it at Otter Lake in Pontiac county, Quebec. It would be surprising were pickerelweed entirely absent from Trent Hills and finally, in 2020, I saw some on the Crowe River at Allan Mills, in the northeast corner of the area.

A less welcome find would be the water soldier (Stratiotes aloides), an invasive water plant that was reported near Trent River in 2008 but which appears to remain localized, as noted below. The water soldier has a colony of some 140 hectares in Lake Seymour, and another of 8.3 acres in Cordova Bay (Freeman, 2015). The section of the Trent River, from county road 30 downstream to county road 50, "has the dubious distinction of being the only known wild population in North America". The plant, native to Europe and northwest Asia, remains active in September and October. Since the native aquatic species go dormant in autumn, this is the optimal time to target the water soldier with an appropriate herbicide (Freeman, 2015). Another curious resident, identified at Trent River in 2019, is the colonial invertebrate rejoicing in the name Magnificent Bryozoan! This freshwater species forms large, rounded colonies. Thanks to Anne of the Friends of Ferris for pointing out this peculiar lifeform. Ancestral bryozoans more than 400 million years old are found in the local limestones.

As with the associated bird list, the degree to which this compilation reflects the natural history of the township is bound to be biased by the relative skills and interests of the compiler vis-a-vis the various classes of living things. There is also a geographic (and thus ecosystem) bias towards frequent haunts in the township, which include:

There are plenty of gaps: ferns and mosses for example. Fish barely feature here either, but not for lack of fish - sport fishing is a popular seasonal pastime!

The listing rapidly grew and reached 500 species on 18 July 2015. The right-hand "list" column may be flagged "C" (species sighted at CBCA, Crowe Bridge Conservation Area, nominally up-to-date), "F" or "S". The "F" stands for Ferris Provincial Park. The Ferris list is being added episodically --- so far, apart from a few recent sightings which have been flagged, only the 2014 sightings are represented in full. The "S" is for Seymour Conservation Area. As with Ferris, this is a projected future addition, as time allows. Note that the companion bird list was fully updated for "C, F and S" sightings in June 2020 and remains current at time of posting. Starting in January 2024, "M" will refer to the Mary West property of the Nature Conservancy of Canada, 2 km west of Campbellford, on the west flank of Westben, in the northwest corner of Highway 30 and county road 35 ("West's Corners"). This list will be filled in shortly, and I'm making a start with a lovely tree, the yellow birch!

bergamot [185 kb] Queen Anne's Lace [111 kb]

Above: two local botanical sights. Left: a large clump of mauve bergamot , one of the prettiest and most aromatic flowers of the summer season, seen growing in a rough trail verge, July 2006. Right: Queen Anne's lace (flower head some 8 cm wide), a tall, delicate plant which is very prominent in July and August.

The first list includes 161 species of wild flowers and nonflowering plants, plus 16 grasses. 56 of these species were identified in the period 21 May to 25 August 2004, at the start of this project. They are presented in a crude alphabetical order, not arranged by any botanical taxonomy.

Note that these lists are based on observations far less-detailed and extensive than for the birds. There are many more species of flowers, grasses, fungi, trees and animals in the region than recorded here: these are merely some of the more obvious examples.

The spring and early summer of 2004 was relatively mild and wet, culminating in a destructive flood in the city of Peterborough on 15 July, brought about by the fall of some 170 to 200 mm of rain in a 24-hour period. The unusual summer contributed to a very fine display of wildflowers. On 21 July, at least 32 of the flower species on this list were easy to find, some (such as white sweet-clover and great mullein) close to 2 metres in height. The first half of 2008 was marked by a relatively long snowy winter, with a brief hot spell in early April followed by a slow spring period extending into June, and finally a rapid spurt of plant growth into July. The rain kept stream levels high, vegetation lush, and so it was no surprise to see at least 36 species of wildflowers on a short walk on 10 August.

Seymour and CBCA Species Lists: The Crowe Bridge Conservation Area

This township compilation is being updated at frequent intervals. You may want to print a copy and then check off / add species for yourself. The "List" column includes "C" entries that refer to the Crowe Bridge Conservation Area (CBCA). For a related slide-show on the natural history of this beautiful and interesting 10-hectare area in the valley of the Crowe River, see either of two overlapping editions of a PowerPoint presentation flagged (in .pdf format) on the Turnstone web site. The information on CBCA included in that on-line show was collected in 2007 and 2008, and later extended and updated into October 2010, hosted initially on the "Save The Crowe" web site. The latest edition is May 2013.

A wonderful account of the local history of this stretch of the lower Crowe, of the swimming holes and the local community, has been written by life-long resident and farmer William (Bill) Petherick in The Tribune, May 2021 issue.

The Crowe Bridge Conservation Area list includes at least 174 species: 72 species of flowering and non-flowering plants and 7 grasses; 38 birds; 27 trees and shrubs; 26 assorted mammals, reptiles and amphibians, insects, molluscs and crustaceans, and 4 fungi. A more inclusive CBCA list would also include small frogs and small (5- to 8-cm-long) thin fish (fingerlings) which are olive-green with orange and black markings near the tail (juvenile trout?) and bottom-dwelling fish up to 6" (15 cm) in length [see below for the note on fish species reported at nearby Hastings on the Trent River upstream from the mouth of the Crowe].

The CBCA list remains very much a work in progress: as of 31 August 2008 it already contained 35% of all species noted in Seymour township, including 60% of the flowers but just 16% of the birds. The eagle, bat and salamander, Dobson fly (shown in italics), milk snake, pileated woodpecker and black bear at CBCA were variously reported by the Humphries family and Lisa Winegarden, the salamander documented by photos in August 2008. The Humphries also noted a family of foxes on site in 2009. The crayfish (a large individual, 10 cm long) was discovered by Fran Manns in August 2010 in a shallow pool at the CBCA. An even larger example was found dead beside the Trent canal in early April 2012.

The current CBCA roster includes 35% of all species on the township lists at that time, in just 0.033 percent of the township land area. This little list is doubtless not unique in Trent Hills but, combined with the geological features of the conservation area, argues for preserving CBCA for future generations, and avoiding inappropriate development.

To aid biological census-taking at CBCA, all species noted there are flagged here (C); the under-represented birds are listed separately at the end of this compilation.

Note that the Trent Hills area lies in the Great Lakes- St. Lawrence Lowland forest region, on the north margin of the relatively limited area of deciduous forests along the north shores of Lakes Erie and Ontario. It is transitional from plant hardiness zones 4 to 5 (see maps in Farrar, 1995, pp.482-483). By way of explanation, the flora of North America can be divided into ten zones from 1 (tundra) to 10 (tropical). Campbellford is sufficiently far south, low in elevation and sheltered, that it supports a number of southern species near the north limits of their range, such as smokebush and catalpa. Northwards of highway 7 can be considered zone 4, while Trent Hills is plausibly zone 5, and areas to the south and west (e.g., Prince Edward county, Toronto) are zone 6.

The snowfall in the township can be considered moderate, the average estimated (based on Campbellford, for the most part) at roughly 1.4 metres (range 0.7 to 2.6 metres) per winter over the 14 winters from 2007-2008 to 2020-2021. Ignoring the occasional flurry of small flakes, appreciable snowfall occurs as early as the first week of November and can come up to the latter half of of April. This pattern can be ascribed to a position between the lees of the Great Lakes (Erie-Ontario to the south and Huron to the northwest). Lake-effect snows impact the shore of Prince Edward county to the southeast, and also areas to the north, east from Georgian Bay. Some basic, unofficial snow data (pdf file, 321 kb) are presented here, from Q4-2007 through Q2-2023. Note that these are based on simple metric measurements of mean snow depths, and do not reflect variability in snow types, from light powder to heavy wet snow (which is critical to the equivalent rainfall amount).

Though the majority of the species listed in these pages are indigenous, there are more than a few "imports" or "escapes", species imported deliberately or by accident. Some plants, for example, have been cultivated for many years and came to the area via Europe. A case in point is Scylla or Siberian squill, a pretty blue flower which blooms in early April and has passing resemblance to an English bluebell.

Many species of flowers occur far and wide, beyond North America. A small example: species such as marsh marigold, self-heal, ox-eye daisy, bird's-foot trefoil and bladder campion are all found in Ireland. I have so far limited the number of obvious imports, such as the pretty yellow shrubs of the genus Forsythia, unless they occur wild, or at least in settings such as former farmland, reverted to the wild. Being a hardy European import, Forsythia appears capable of growing beyond its familiar garden setting. Beneath the water, a good example seen in both Crowe and Trent rivers in Trent Hills is the rusty crayfish which is an invasive species introduced to the Kawarthas in the 1960s, most probably by fishermen from the Ohio- Kentucky- Tennessee region, south of the Great Lakes. It now competes with and replaces smaller local species such as the eastern crayfish.

The region lies within the 12,400 km2 Trent River drainage basin, administered by four conservation authorities, The watershed includes the Lower Trent area downstream of Rice Lake (2,121 km2, including Campbellford and much of Trent Hills), and the Crowe river drainage (circa 2,000 km2). The Lower Trent area is composed of 12 sub-watersheds, including those drained by Trout Creek (45 km2) and Cold Creek (261 km2).

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Above: two wild flower images from the Crowe Bridge conservation area (CBCA) in July 2010. Left: white boneset flanked by yellow swamp sunflower (common sneezeweed), a pair often found by the water's edge. Right: Berries of false Solomon's seal which will turn all red within a few days. An identical plant and ripening berries were noted at Seymour conservation area on 20 August 2011.

Flowers and plants (166), Grasses (16) and Fungi (54) of Seymour Township

English Latin Notes / Alternative Names List
Yellow adder's-tongue Erythronium americanum trout-lily CFM
Alfalfa Medicago sativa the common mauve variety CM
Yellow alfalfa Medicago falcata lucerne
Hoary alyssum Berteroa incana C
Canada anemone Anemone canadensis C
Great angelica Angelica atropurpurea purple-stemmed angelica
Broad-leaved arrowhead Sagittaria latifolia wapato (noted for edible winter tubers: "water potato")
Wild asparagus Asparagus officinalis F
Lindley's aster Symphotrichum ciliolatum fringed aster, Aster ciliolatus F
Heath aster Symphotrichum ericoides CF
Large-leaved aster Eurybia macrophylla
New England aster Symphyotrichum novae-angliae CF
Panicled aster Symphyotrichum lanceolatum tall white aster CF
Hairy beard-tongue Penstemon hirsutus hairy penstemon CF
Beech drops Epifagus virginianaparasitic on beech roots
Bee-balm Monarda didyma related to bergamot
Nodding beggar-ticks Bidens cernuus sticktight
Large-flowered bellwort Uvularia grandiflora yellow bellwort, big merrybells F
Wild bergamot Monarda fistulosa a fragrant herb of the mint family CFS
Field bindweed Convolvulus arvensis (white) F
Hedge bindweed Convolvulus sepium Calystegia sepium (pink and white) F
Bloodroot Sanguinaria canadensis FM
Blueweed Echium vulgarecommon viper's bugloss CF
Bouncing Bet Saponaria officinalis soap wort C
Virgin's bower Clematis virginiana a twining vine
Bracken Pteridium aquilinum C
Lesser burdock Arctium minus common burdock F
Turtlehead Chelone glabra F
Butter-and-eggs Linaria vulgaris toadflax CF
Meadow buttercup Ranunculus acris tall buttercup CF
Bladder campion Silene cucubalus Silene vulgaris, rattleweed, cow-bell, white bottle CF
White campion Silene latifolia Lychnis alba, evening lychnis, white cockle, white robin FM
Cardinal flower Lobelia cardinalis C
Catnip Nepeta cataria herb, source of tea F
Common cattail Typha latifolia F
Scentless chamomile Matricaria perforata Tripleurospermum perforata
Pineapple-weed Matricaria discoidea F
Creeping Charlie Glechoma hederacea Ground ivy
Field chickweed Cerastium arvense Field mouse-ear F
Common chicory Cichorium intybus CFM
Sulphur cinquefoil Potentilla recta yellow cinquefoil CF
Cleavers Galium aparine goosegrass, annual bedstraw, sticky willy
Alsike clover Trifolium hybridum FM
Red clover Trifolium pratense CFM
Coltsfoot Tussilago farfara F
Wild columbineAquilegia canadensis attracts hummingbirds, butterflies, bumblebees CF
Pink corydalis Corydalis sempervirens pale corydalis
Bicknell's cranesbill Geranium bicknellii related to Herb Robert
Virginia creeper Parthenocissus quinquefolia one of the woodbine family F
Purple crown-vetch Coronilla varia
Prickly cucumber Echinocystis lobata wild cucumber
Ox-eye daisy Leucanthemum vulgare Chrysanthemum leucanthemum, Moon daisy, dog daisy, Marguerite, horse-gowan CFM
Common dandelion Taraxacum officinale CFM
Orange day-lily Hemerocallis fulva Daylily CF
Dog-strangling vine Cynanchum rossicum Pale swallow-wort F
Spreading dogbane Apocynum androsaemifolium F
Doll's-eyes Actaea pachypoda white baneberry CF
Elecampane Inula helenium one of almost 600 species of aster FM
Common evening-primrose Oenothera biennis C
Christmas fern Polystichum acrostichoides Dryopteris acrostichoides
Northern maidenhair fern Adiantum pedatum F
Ostrich fern Matteuccia struthiopteris Fiddlehead fern M
Rattlesnake fern Botrychium virginianum Virginia grape fern
Canada fleabane Conyza canadensis horseweed
Daisy fleabane Erigeron annuus annual fleabane CFM
Philadelphia fleabane Erigeron philadelphicus CFM
Bottle gentian Gentiana andrewsii closed gentian CF
Orange-fruited horse-gentian Triosteum aurantiacum wild coffee F
Goat's-beard Tragopogon dubius a very distinctive aster CF
Blue-stemmed goldenrod Solidago caesia wreath goldenrod CF
Canada goldenrod Solidago canadensis the common goldenrod here CF
Rough-stemmed goldenrod Solidago rugosa C
Grey-stemmed goldenrod Solidago nemoralis F
Grass-leaved goldenrod Euthamia graminifolia Solidago graminifolia C
Fox grape Vitis labrusca a vine
Frost grape Vitis riparia wild grape, a vine CFM
Common blue-eyed-grass Sisyrinchium montanum member of iris family
Harebell Campanula rotundifolia CF
Orange hawkweed Hieracium aurantiacum C
Yellow hawkweed Hieracium caespitosum king devil CFM
Spotted water-hemlock Cicuta maculata spotted cowbane
Sharp-lobed hepatica Anemone acutilobasharp-lobed liverleaf CF
Hog-peanut Amphicarpaea bracteata F
Hairy honeysuckle Lonicera hirsutacf. the shrubby fly honeysuckle
Water horsetail Equisetum fluviatile
Indian-pipe Monotropa uniflora F
Blue flag iris Iris versicolor C
Yellow flag iris Iris pseudoacorus Yellow iris F
Poison ivy Toxicodendron radicans poison oak CF
Boneset Eupatorium perfoliatum C
Jimsonweed Datura stramoniumcommon thorn-apple, devil's snare, devil's cucumber: a toxic species of nightshade
Spotted Joe-Pye weed Eupatorium maculatum CF
Spotted knapweed Centauria biebersteinii Pink, and rare white variant CF
Yellow lady's-slipper Cypripedium parviflorum Dry-woods variant of this orchid, with larger flower F
Lamb's-quarters Chenopodium album White goosefoot, "pigweed", in strawberry fields, etc
Canada lettuce Lactuca canadensis tall lettuce
Prickly lettuce Lactuca serriola
White lettuce Prenanthes alba White rattlesnake-root F
Purple loosestrife Lythrum salicaria CF
Fringed yellow-loosestrife Lysimachia ciliata Steironema ciliata
Musk mallow Malva moschata
Marsh marigold Caltha palustris cowslip, kingcup
Mayapple Podophyllum peltatum FM
Purple meadow rue Thalictrum dasycarpum
Veiny meadow rue Thalictrum venulosum C
Black medick Medicago lupulina F
Swamp milkweed Asclepias incarnata C
Common milkweed Asclepias syriaca silkweed M
Wild mint Mentha arvensis field mint C
Square-stemmed monkey-flower Mimulus ringens C
Great mullein Verbascum thapsus CFM
Garlic mustard Aliolaria petiolata FM
Wild mustard Sisymbrium altissimum tumbleweed mustard; tumble mustard; tall tumble mustard C
Wormseed mustard Erysimum cheiranthoides M
Stinging nettle Urtica dioica American stinging nettle
Bittersweet nightshade Solanum dulcamara climbing nightshade C
Cow parsnip Heracleum lanatum Woolly cow parsnip
Wild parsnip Pastinaca sativa
Common water-parsnip Sium suave fragrant water-parsnip C
Wild pea Vicia cracca bird vetch; tufted vetch; cow vetch CFM
Wall pepper Sedum acre stonecrop
Blue phlox Phlox divaricata
Pickerelweed Pontederia cordata
Prostrate pigweed Amaranthus blitoides mat amaranth, matweed S
Deptford pink Dianthus armeria grass pink CF
Common plantain Plantago major broadleaf plantain F
English plantain Plantago lanceolata
Nodding plumeless-thistle Carduus nutans
Wild pumpkin Cucurbita foetidissima or similar - introduced (?)
Field pussytoes Antennaria neglecta C
Queen Anne's lace Daucus carota CF
Common ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia rather small and low-key here, mostly <50 cm high C
White rattlesnake-root Prenanthes alba white lettuce
Dame's rocket Hesperis matronalis old-fashioned phlox F
Pasture rose Rosa carolina CF
Smooth scouring rush Equisetum laevigatum FM
St. Johns wort Hypericum perforatum CFM
Wild sarsaparillaAralia nudicaulis member of ginseng family
Scylla Scilla siberica Siberian squill, an "escaped import"
Self-heal Prunella vulgarisheal-all CF
Common silverweed Argentina anserina Potentilla anserina
Pale smartweed Polygonum lapathifolium C
False Solomon's seal Maianthemum racemosumfalse spikenard CF
Starry false Solomon's seal Maianthemum stellatum FM
Perennial sow-thistle Sonchus arvensis
Common speedwell Veronica officinalis common gypsyweed
Wild strawberry Fragaria virginiana Virginia strawberry
Annual sunflower Helianthus annuus
Rough woodland sunflower Helianthus divaricatus CF
Swamp sunflower Helenium autumnale common sneezeweed C
Black-eyed susan Rudbeckia hirta
White sweet-clover Melilotus alba CFM
Yellow sweet-clover Melilotus officinalis
Common tansy Tanacetum vulgare M
Wild teasel Dipsacus fullonum F
Bull thistle Cirsium vulgare C
Thimbleweed Anemone cylindrica long-headed anemone CF
Tall thimbleweed Anemone virginiana tall anemone F
Canada thistleCirsium arvense CF
Spotted touch-me-not Impatiens capensis spotted jewelweed
Bird's-foot trefoil Lotus corniculatus "bacon and eggs", a member of the pea family CF
Showy tick trefoil Desmodium canadense Canadian tick-trefoil F
Red trillium Trillium erectum purple trillium; wake-robin F
Snow trillium Trillium grandiflorum large white trillium CFM
Wild tulip Tulipa sylvestris Woodland tulip, Eurasian, naturalised in N.America
Twinleaf Jeffersonia diphylla
Trumpet vine Campsis radicans trumpet creeper, cow itch vine, native to SE USA
Northern blue violet Viola sororia M
Yellow violet Viola pubescens downy yellow violet F
Swamp vervain Verbena hastata blue vervain, false vervain
Small-leaved watercress Nasturtium microphyllum
Hairy willowherb Epilobium hirsutum
Common yarrow Achillea millefolium a fragrant herb CF
Muskgrass Chara sp. Actually a type of branched algae, aka skunkweed C
Grasses (16 species)
Timothy grass Phleum pratense S
Green foxtail Setaria viridis foxtail millet, pigeon grass, bottle brush, bottle grass
Red top grass Agrostis sp. bentgrass C
Witchgrass Panicum capillare panic grass. hair grass, tickle grass, tumble grass CF
Fall panicum Panicum dichotomiflorum panic d'automne, smooth panicum, smooth witchgrass, spreading panic grass. wire grass S
Large crab grassDigitaria sanguinalis S
Smooth crab grassDigitaria ischaemum
Kalm's brome Bromus kalmii prairie bromegrass, wild chess S
Smooth brome Bromus inermis brome grass C
Common peppergrass Lepidium densiflorum C
Field peppergrass Lepidium campestre
Downy brome Bromus tectorum cheat grass brome, downy chess
Side-oats gama Bouteloua curtipendola a bunch grass
Wild oats Avena fatua folle avoine, black oats C
Orchard grass Dactylis glomerata C
Reed canary grass Phalaris arundinacea reed canarygrass C
Mushrooms and fungi (57 species)
Fairy butter Dacrymyces palmatus one of the jelly fungi C
Inky cap Coprinopsis atramentaria
Mica cap Coprinus micaceus
Club-footed clitocybe Clitocybe clavipes C
Worm-like coral Clavaria vermicularis One of the coral fungi F
Daedaleopsis Daedaleopsis confragosa a bracket fungus
Dryad's saddle Cerioporus squamosus Polyporus squamosus, pheasant's back mushroom FM
Comb tooth fungus Hericium americanum Hericium coralloides, coral hydnum C
Deer mushroom Pluteus atricapillus
Yellow-tipped coral fungus Ramaria formosa (or similar) pink-tipped coral (2023) F
Eastern cauliflower mushroom Sparassis herbstii (2023) F
Russula Russula paludosa a reddish-pink gill mushroom (2023) F
Lactarius Lactarius piperatus a large concave gill mushroom (2023) F
Tar spot fungus Rhytisma acinerum found on Norway maples
Shaggy mane Coprinus comatus
Yellow morel Morchella esculenta common morel
Meadow mushroom Agaricus campestris
Winter mushroom Flammulina velutipes
Smooth parasol Leucoagaricus leucothites Lepiota naucina, Leucoagaricus naucina
Giant puffball Calvatia gigantea CF
Cedar-apple rust Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae
White pine blister rust Cronartium ribicola European invader
Trametes Trametes hirsuta Coriolus hirsutus, a bracket fungus
Trametes Trametes gibbosa lumpy bracket fungus F
Phyllotopsis Phyllotopsis nidulans a bracket fungus, "mock oyster" F
Mycena strobilinoides Mycena strobilinoides
Chicken of the woods Laetiporus sulphureous F
and (see footnote) at Ferris Park, 02 October 2011
Schizophyllum Schizophyllum commune world's most widely-distributed mushroom F
Deadly galerina Galerina autumnalis F
Wolf's-milk slime Lycogala epidendron toothpaste slime, Groening's slime (slime mould not fungus) F
Tree ear fungus Auricularia auricula ear fungus F
Black witches' butter Exidia glandulosa F
Polypore Polyporus mori F
Cortinarius Cortinarius alboviolaceous F
Hen of the Woods Grifola frondosa F
Hebeloma Hebeloma crustuliniforme poison pie F
Honey mushroom Armillariella mellea group F
Turkey tail Trametes versicolor Coriolus versicolor, a bracket fungus F
Purple-toothed polyphore Trichaptum biforme F
Birch polypore Piptoporus betulinus razor-strop fungus, a bracket fungus F
Soapy tricholoma Tricholoma saponaceum F
Hypoxylon Hypoxylon fragiforme F
Phlebia Phlebia radiata a crust fungus on dead wood F
Dead man's fingers Xylaria polymorpha F
and (see footnote) at Ferris Park, 30 September 2012
Hebeloma Hebeloma sinapizans F
Coprinus Coprinus lagopus Small cousin of shaggy mane & mica cap F
Stalked xylaria Xylaria longipes F
Mycena Mycena sp. Large genus of small to tiny mushrooms F
Perenniporia Perenniporia ohiensis F
Blackfoot polypore Polyporus varius F
Entoloma Entoloma clypeatum F
Common laccaria Laccaria laccata F
Green leptonia Leptonia incana F
Leccinum Leccinum scabrum birch bolete F
King bolete Boletus edulis F
and (see footnote) at Ferris Park, 29 September 2013
White cheese polypore Tyromyces chioneus F
Chanterelle waxcap Hygrocybe cantharellus F
Mycena haematopus Mycena haematopus F
Birch Lenzites Lenzites betulina Gilled bracket F

Note, 17 of the species above were identified on south-facing slopes in northern Ferris Park, in the course on an hour's walk organized by the Friends of Ferris and led by author Jan Thornhill, well-known creator of a series of children's nature books on environmental themes. Not counted on the October 2011 walk were a tooth fungus (already listed), and at least ten other species that evaded the compiler. This confirms my suspicion that for every species I find on my own here, there are probably two (birds) or indeed many species that would be evident to a real expert! This list is just a glimpse of our natural surroundings. Many thanks to Jan Thornhill and Friends of Ferris for this eye-opener.

The Ferris Fungi Walk returned, with Jan Thornhill, Phil Careless, a cast of about fifty people plus several dogs, on 30 September 2012, which accounts for the final 11 entries above. These are only a selection of the 40-odd species which were identified (on the walk or subsequently), despite a damp grey day (but not rainy, unlike 2011) and the preceding, uniquely drought-parched summer in 2012. Prior to this day, I had seen few fungi in the local woods, though there was a remarkable abundance of giant puffballs in mature woodlands, some of which appeared for sale, and/or as soup! Covering my tracks somewhat, several of the day's finds are left at the genus level... A third day out, on a flawless Sunday, 29 September 2013, with an overlapping, and even larger cast of characters, brought forth more fascinating fungi, including at least four species new to this list. So, back to the woods with my new copy of Barron (1999) [see references at end].

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Above: two local botanical (well, mycological) wonders. Left: A thin-stemmed example of a fine gilled mushroom, a (?) club-footed clitocybe, growing in a moist garden location in Campbellford on 20 August 2011. The mushroom is delicate, with a gently concave top, the gills extending down the stalk. Right: this outlandish object, roughly 5 cm in width, is an example of cedar-apple rust, investing a small red-cedar tree in May 2010. The jelly-like horns or "telia" grow from a woody gall and serve to propagate the spores of the fungus. This rust affects red cedar and common juniper, but not white cedar.

The 68 species of trees, shrubs and vines listed below include some beautiful examples, easily accessible to visitors in such areas as the Rotary Trail around the canal in Campbellford, on the hills of nearby Ferris park, and the conservation areas of Seymour and Crowe Bridge. A few of these are notable for being near the northern edge of their range, such as the northern catalpa and smokebush. Thanks to Irwin Kennedy and Jim Connor for pointing out some of these in Ferris park!

Trees, Shrubs and Vines of Seymour Township

English Latin Notes / Alternative Names List
Tag alder Alnus incana rugosa speckled alder, grey alder, hoary alder FM
Black ash Fraxinus nigra
American mountain ash Sorbus americana Dogberry
European mountain ash Sorbus aucuparia Rowan tree, dogberry
White ash Fraxinus americana FM
Red ash Fraxinus pennsylvanica
Common prickly-ash Zanthoxylum americanum spiny shrub FM
Quaking aspen Populus tremuloides trembling aspen C
Bigtooth aspen Populus grandidentata largetooth aspen C
Japanese barberry Berberis thunbergii common barberry F
American basswood Tilia americana a linden CFM
American beech Fagus grandifolia FM
Blue-beech Carpinus caroliana American hornbeam, musclewood, ironwood, bois de fer CF
Paper birch Betula papyrifera canoe birch, white birch CFM
Yellow birch Betula alleghaniensis swamp birch, curly birch, merisier jaune M
Climbing bittersweet Celastrus scandens American bittersweet (long vine, red berries in orange 3-fold casings)
American bladdernut Staphylea trifolia C
Butternut Juglans cinerea white walnut
Northern catalpa Catalpa speciosa
Western redcedar Juniperus virginiana CF
Northern white cedar Thuja occidentalis CFM
Black cherry Prunus serotina Cerisier tardif M
Choke cherry Prunus virginiana eastern choke cherry, Cerisier de Virginie
Eastern cottonwood Populus deltoides a poplar
Siberian crab apple Malus baccata flowering crab apple: Pyrus baccata
Wild crab apple Malus coronaria sweet crab apple: Pommier odorant
American black currant Ribes americanum
Alternate-leaf dogwood Cornus alternifolia pagoda dogwood CF
Roundleaf dogwood Cornus rugosa F
Red-osier dogwood Cornus stolonifera CF
American elder Sambucus canadensis C
White elm Ulmus americana American elm C
Chinese elm Ulmus parviflora
Slippery elm Ulmus rubra red elm C
Siberian elm Ulmus pumila
Balsam fir Abies balsamea Canada balsam M
Ginkgo Ginkgo biloba oriental ornamental import
Witch hazel Hamamelis virginiana F
Eastern hemlock Tsuga canadensis C
Bitternut hickory Carya cordiformis swamp hickory F
Shagback hickory Carya ovata C
Hobblebush Viburnum alnifolium clusters of small fruits on red stems C
Highbush cranberry Viburnum trilobum American cranberrybush, Viburnum opulus americanum F
Fly honeysuckle Lonicera canadensis shrub, cf. vine-like hairy honeysuckle CF
Hop-hornbeam Ostrya virginiana ironwood, eastern hophornbeam CFM
Horsechestnut Aesculus hippocastanum chestnut (A.h. is a common urban import, native to the Balkans)
Common juniper Juniperus communis dwarf juniper C
Common lilac Syringa vulgaris
Honey-locust Gleditsia triacanthos F
Black locust Robinia pseudoacacia False acacia
Norway maple Acer platanoides
Silver maple Acer saccharinum C
Sugar maple Acer saccharum CFM
Manitoba maple Acer negundo boxelder, box-elder, ashleaf maple FM
Red mulberry Morus rubra
Bur oak Quercus macrocarpa blue oak, mossycup oak CF
Chinquapin oak Quercus muehlenbergii chinkapin oak, yellow chestnut oak F
Northern red oak Quercus rubra chêne rouge CFM
Red pine Pinus resinosa Norway pine CFM
Eastern white pine Pinus stroba CFM
Scots pine Pinus sylvestris
Canada plum Prunus nigra On karst limestone platform at CBCA C
Balsam poplar Populus balsamifera
Multiflora rose Rosa multiflora Japanese rose, introduced (now invasive!) species C
Smokebush Cotinus coggygria
Blue spruce Picea pungens Colorado spruce, silver spruce
White spruce Picea glauca CM
Tamarack Larix laricina American larch FM
Staghorn sumac Rus typhina C
Black walnut Juglans nigra
Weeping willow Salix babylonica import from China, popular worldwide
Yew, sp. Taxus imported cultivars common in gardens

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Above: two vignettes of local trees. Left: a cone with the twisted, paired needles of red pine, seen in November 2009. Right: the damage down the trunk of an American cottonwood, caused by a lightning strike in July 2004. The track of the electricity, in its incredibly short and intense passage to ground, has stripped the bark from the tree, one of a noble line of cottonwoods planted on the west bank of the canal near the time of its completion some 85 years earlier. These gentle giants are now succumbing to age, but happily the Municipality is planting new trees to replace the old, along Grand Road in Campbellford. Those interested in seeing what lightning can do to soil, sand and rock can look at the first of four pages on this site devoted to fulgurites, natural glasses formed by melting induced by lightning.

The third table lists some 23 mammals, 18 reptiles and amphibians, and a token start on the list of butterflies, moths and other insects (circa 67 species, including 23 butterflies and moths and 11 damselflies and dragonflies), plus two fish, two molluscs and a crustacean. The small-footed bat and the salamander have been reported from the CBCA. Currently unlisted / unidentified critters are easy to pick out by their absence in the catalogue: native fish, tiny and medium-sized ants, spiders, black maple leafspot fungus, flies and worms, for a start! The Monarch butterfly is a welcome seasonal visitor: look for it near milkweed plants in the later summer and autumn.

Fish species are something of a mystery to me: it seems reasonable to think that the Trent downstream through Campbellford, and the lowest reaches of the Crowe River, contain much the same fish populations as the Trent at Hastings. In an article on fishing at Hastings, Cecilia Nasmith (2012) notes the popularity and economic importance of fishing in the town. She quotes the following fish species: muskie, pickerel, small-mouth bass, large-mouth bass, catfish, perch, crappie and bluegill. The article was spurred by the World Fishing Network's naming of Hastings as the Number 5 fishing spot in all Canada (Chapleau came first, then Port Colborne, Port Renfrew, Port Hardy and Hastings).

The Fauna of Seymour Township

English Latin Notes / Alternative Names List
Little brown bat Myotis lucifugus
Eastern small-footed batMyotis leibii C
Black bear Ursus americanus C
Beaver Castor canadensis C
Porcupine Erethizon dorsatum
Striped skunk Mephitis mephitis
Eastern chipmunk Tamias striatus CM
Coyote Canis latrans most often detected by its scat
White-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus C
Short-tailed weasel Mustela erminea stoat (summer) / ermine (winter)
River otter Lontra canadensis C
Mink Mustela vison C
Red fox Vulpes vulpes C
Eastern cottontail rabbit Sylvilagus floridanus C
Groundhog Marmota monax woodchuck
Deer mouse Peromyscus maniculatus
Masked shrew Sorex cinereus
Northern short-tailed shrew Blarina brevicauda
Muskrat Ondatra zibethicus
Raccoon Procyon lotor
Grey squirrel Sciurus carolinensis F
Red squirrel Tamiasciurus hudsonicus F
Meadow vole Microtus pennsylvanicus field mouse
Reptiles and Amphibians
Common garter snake Thamnophis sirtalis CF
Milk snake Lampropeltis triangulum C
Northern water snake Nerodia sipedon C
Brown snake Storeria dekayi DeKay's snake
Northern redbelly snake Storeria occipitomaculata occipitomaculata
Black rat snake Elaphe obsoleta obsoleta
Boreal chorus frog Pseudacris maculata Here 1st ID'd as western (Midland) CF, Pseudacris triseriata F
Northern spring peeper Pseudacris crucifer Hyla crucifer C
Northern leopard frog Rana pipiens (green & brown* forms, *cf. pickerel frog) C
Wood frog Rana sylvatica
Green frog Rana clamitans
American toad Anaxyrus americanus Formerly Bufo americanus FM
Midland painted turtle Chrysemis picta CF
Snapping turtle Chelydra serpentina
Northern map turtle Graptemys geographica Malaclemys geographica F
Eastern spiny softshell turtle Apalone spinifera Trionyx spiniferus spiniferus (seen in August 2020, but photos leave room for doubt)
Blanding's turtle Emydoidea blandingii (seen in 2005 )
Blue-spotted salamander Ambystoma laterale C
Eastern red-backed salamander Plethodon cinereus
Rock bass Ambloplites rupestris
Common carp Cyprinus carpio introduced from eastern Europe, 19th century
Butterflies and Moths
Red admiralVanessa atalanta
White admiralLimenitis arthemis arthemis Red-spotted admiral F
Alfalfa butterfly Colias eurytheme orange sulphur
European cabbage butterfly Pieris rapne
American copper Lycaena phlaeas
Northern crescent Phyciodes cocyta cf. Pearl crescent
Pearl crescent Phyciodes tharos
Great spangled fritillary Speyeria cybele
Harvester Feniseca tarquinius
Monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus F
Mourning cloak Nymphalis antiopa F
Appalachian brown Satyrodes appalachia F
Wood nymph Cercyonis pegala
Northern pearly-eye Lethe anthedon Enodia anthedon
Silver-spotted skipper Epargyreus clarus
Clouded sulphur butterfly Colias philodice
Little wood satyr Megisto cymela
Canadian tiger swallowtail Papilio canadensis M
Black swallowtail Papilio polyxenes
Giant swallowtail Papilio crespontes CFM
Virginia ctenucha moth Ctenucha virginica Arctiidae (tiger moths)
Hickory tussock moth Lophocampa caryae Arctiidae: caterpillar is fluffy, white and black
Rosy maple moth Dryocampa rubicunda Member of the Saturniidae (great silk moths)
European gypsy moth Lymantria dispar LDD moth - accidental escape (import to NJ, 1868), a pest in 2021 S
Damselflies and Dragonflies (Odonates)
Black-winged damselfly Agrion maculatum Calopteryx maculata
Stream bluet damselfly Enallagma exsulans
Hagen's bluet damselfly Enallagma hageni
Northern bluet damselfly Enallagma annexium C
Azure bluet damselfly Enallagma aspersum F
Ebony jewelwing damselfly Calopteryx maculata a broad-winged damsel (female has white wing spots) M
Powdered dancer damselfly Argea moesta
Eastern forktail dragonfly Ischnura verticalis
Band-winged meadowhawk dragonfly Sympetrum semicinctum C
Twelve-spotted skimmer dragonfly Libellula pulchella ten-spotted skimmer
Common whitetail dragonfly Plathemis lydia
Honeybee Apis mellifera
Carpenter bee Xylocopa virginica
Yellowjacket wasp Vespula maculifrons
Grass carrier wasp Isodontia apicalis
Great black wasp Sphex pennsylvanicus
Eastern boxelder bug Boisea trivittata
Multicoloured Asian ladybeetle Harmonia axyridis ladybug, variable. e.g., orange with 16 spots
Common walkingstick Diapheromera femorata Northern walkingstick, a form of stick insect F
June beetle Phyllophaga fervida May beetle
Stink bug Pentatomidae gen.
Burying beetle Nicrophorus sp. carrion beetle, sexton beetle
Six-spotted tiger beetle Cicindela sexguttata iridescent green, white spots
Mite Poecilochirus sp. associated with Nicrophorus
Mite Vasates quadrupeds Causes maple bladder galls (red spots on leaves)
Sumac gall aphid Melaphis rhois Causes 1-2 cm, green to red galls on sumac (seen in August)
American tent caterpillar Malacosoma americana May "tents", very abundant some years CF
Fall webworm Hyphantrea cunea Late summer "tents", hairy yellowish caterpillars
Woolly bear caterpillar Isia isabella Isabella tiger moth
Common house centipede Scutigera coleoptrata
Millipede Narceus americanus F
Woodlouse Porcellio laevis "pillbug"
Silverfish Lespisma saccharina (Linnaeus) "carpet shark"
Black carpenter ant Camponotus pennsylvanicus
Pharaoh ant Monomorium pharaonis or similar - tiny 2-tone pale ant
European mantis Mantis religiosa
Carolina grasshopper Dissosteira carolina road duster grasshopper C
Dobson fly Corydalis cornutus C
Pennsylvania firefly Photuris pennsylvanica C
Gall fly Eurosta solidaginis freeze-tolerant larval galls on goldenrod
Deer fly Chrysops, sp.
Mosquito Culex, sp. FM
Freshwater mussel genus Unionidae river mussels C
Eastern mystery snail Viviparus georgianus river snail C
Freshwater bryozoans
Magnificent bryozoan Pectinatella magnifica
a) Araneae
Cross orbweaver spider Araneus diadematus
Daddy long-legs spider Pholcus phalangioides cellar spider
b) Crustacea
Rusty crayfish Orconectes rusticus An invasive species C
c) Ixodida
Black-legged tick Ixodes scapularis deer tick (beware: Lyme disease, etc! ***) FS

*** The deer tick has been much more common across much of Ontario in the early 21st century, presumably another side-effect of a warming trend in the regional climate. The tick clings to long grass or shrubbery, until it has a chance to hop onto a suitable passing animal or human victim. Based on local anecdote, ticks appear much more active in 2022 and 2023 than in the preceding two decades. Eight documented instances in 2020-2024 were all in spring and early summer, 10 April to 07 July. Prior to that, 1998-2019, we saw just one tick, picked up at Presqu'ile in May 2017. Ticks start "questing" for prey as soon as it is warm enough for them to be active. After that, they are said to remain active until the near-zero temperatures of late autumn. There are at least 90 tick species in the USA, 40 in Canada, including the deer tick and the American dog tick. Ticks can pass as many as 7 diseases to humans, of which Lyme is of the most general concern. In Ontario, the deer tick is the only vector that transmits Lyme to humans.
A similar uptick in ticks (groan) has been noted in the British Isles. Some 22 species are described from the UK and Ireland, though only certain species, notably the sheep tick, will bite humans and possibly pass on Lyme or other diseases. These tick species commonly have their preferred hosts, such as birds (e.g., cormorant, puffin) and mammals (rabbit, hedgehog, bat, sheep).

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Above: two beautiful flying "bugs" photographed in the first week of August 2011. Left: band-winged meadowhawk dragonfly on purple loosestrife at the Crowe Bridge Conservation Area (CBCA). Right: A giant swallowtail butterfly taking a brief rest from its powerful flight along a trail just west of Campbellford.

The following is a token bird list for the CBCA - 38 species - given time, it can surely be proved that most or all of the birds on the Seymour Township bird list are present here on a seasonal or year-round basis.

Preliminary Bird List for the Crowe Bridge Conservation Area

English Latin French Alternative Names
Double-crested Cormorant 1998-2020 Phalacrocorax auritus Cormoran aigrettes
Great Blue Heron 1998-2013 Ardea herodias Grand héron
Little Blue HeronFlorida caerulea Petit héron bleu
Canada Goose Branta canadensis Bernache canadienne
Mallard 1998-2020 Anas platyrhynchos Canard colvert Canard malard
Common Goldeneye1998-2020 Bucephala clangula Garrot à oeil d'or Garrot commun, American goldeneye, Glaucionetta clangula americana (obsolete)
Bufflehead 1998-2013 Bucephela albeola Petit garrot
Common Merganser 1998-2014 Mergus merganser Grand bec-scie
Turkey Vulture 1998-2021 Cathartes aura Urubu à tête rouge Vautour à tête rouge
Osprey 1999-2008 Pandion haliaetus L'aigle pêcheur Balbuzard
Bald Eagle 1998-2021 Haliaeetus leucocephalus L'aigle à tête blanche Pygargue à tête blanche
American Kestrel Falco sparverius Crécerelle américaine Sparrow hawk
Merlin Falco columbarius Faucon merillon Pigeon hawk
Ruffed Grouse 1999-2013 Bonasa umbellus Gelinotte huppée
Ring-billed Gull 1998-2013 Larus delawarensis Goéland à bec cerclé
Feral Pigeon Columba livia Pigeon biset Rock dove; Domestic pigeon
Belted Kingfisher Ceryle alcyon Martin-pêcheur Megaceryle alcyon
Downy Woodpecker 1999-2020 Picoides pubescens Pic mineur Dendrocopos pubescens
Hairy Woodpecker 1999-2011 Picoides villosus Pic chevelu Dendrocopos villosus
Northern Flicker Colaptes auratus Pic flamboyant Yellow-shafted flicker; Pic dor
Pileated Woodpecker Dryocopus pileatus Grand pic
Eastern Wood-Pewee 1998-2013 Contopus virens Pioui de l'Est Eastern pewee
Eastern Phoebe 1999-2013 Sayornis phoebe Moucherolle phébi
Great Crested Flycatcher Myiarchus crinitus Tyran huppé Moucherolle huppé
Eastern Kingbird Tyrannus tyrannus Tyran tritri
Northern Rough-winged Swallow Selgidopteryx serripennis Hirondelle à ailes hérissées Selgidopteryx ruficollis
Cedar Waxwing 1999-2020 Bombycilla cedrorum Jaseur des cèdres
Grey Catbird Dumetella carolinensis Moqueur chat Moqueur polyglotte
American Robin 1998-2020 Turdus migratorius Merle d'Amérique Merle américain
Black-capped Chickadee Parus atricapillus Mésange à tête noire
White-breasted Nuthatch 1999-2012 Sitta carolinensis Sittelle poitrine blanche
Brown creeper 1998-2014 Certhia americana Grimpereau brun Certhia familiaris americana
Red-eyed Vireo 1998-2014 Vireo olivaceus Viréo aux yeux rouges
Common Grackle 1998-2022 Quiscalus quiscula Mainate bronzé Bronzed grackle
American Goldfinch Carduelis tristis Chardonneret jaune Spinus tristis
European Starling Sturnus vulgaris tourneau sansonnet
Blue Jay 1999-2007 Cyanocitta cristata Geai bleu
American Crow 1998-2013 Corvus brachyrhynchos Corneille américaine Common crow


The following books were used for the identifications presented above. All are very helpful in their fields: Farrar's handbook of trees is especially remarkable. A combination of the books, providing both photographs and line drawings, provides the most efficient means of identifying a particular species.


Alex,JF and Switzer,CM (1982) Ontario Weeds. Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food, Toronto, OMAF Publication 505, 208pp.

Barron,G (1999) Mushrooms of Ontario & Eastern Canada. Lone Pine Publishing, Edmonton, 336pp. [relevant to Ontario, Quebec, maritime Canada and north-central to northeastern U.S.A., from Minnesota to Illinois, Maryland, New York and Maine].

Brockman,CF and Merrilees,R (1979) Trees of North America. Golden Press, New York, 280pp.

Chambers,BA, Naylor,BJ, Nieppola,J, Merchant,B and Uhlig,P (1997) Field Guide to Forest Ecosystems of Central Ontario. Ministry of Natural Resources SCSS Field Guide FG-01, 200pp. [from Sault Ste. Marie to Sudbury and Temagami, and south to Parry Sound, Algonquin Park and Bancroft].

Clarke,R (2003) To Know This Place: The Black Oak Savanna / Tallgrass Prairie of Alderville First Nation. Sweetgrass Studios, Alderville First Nation, Roseneath, Ontario, 41pp.

Dickinson,T, Metsger,D, Bull,J and Dickinson,R (2004) Wildflowers of Ontario. Royal Ontario Museum / McClelland & Stewart, Toronto, 416pp.

Farrar,JL (1995) Trees in Canada. Fitzhenry & Whiteside Limited, Markham, Ontario / Canadian Forest Service, 502pp.

Fisher,C, Joynt,A and Brooks,RJ (2007) Reptiles and Amphibians of Canada. Lone Pine Publishing, Edmonton, 208pp.

Freeman,Bill (2015) More ammunition for local water soldier campaign. Trent Hills Independent, pp.1,4, 27 August.

Holland,WJ, Daniel,S, Southby,CA and Southby,DT (2003) The Field Guide to Butterflies. Main Street Press / Sterling Publishing Co. Inc., New York, 224pp. [Photographic update of Holland's original 1915 title, "The Butterfly Guide"].

Hosie,RC (1973) Native Trees of Canada. Canadian Forestry Service, 380pp. (reprinting of 1969 original).

Jones,CD, Kingsley,A, Burke,P and Holder,M (2008) Field Guide to the Dragonflies and Damselflies of Algonquin Provincial Park and the Surrounding Area. Friends of Algonquin Park, P.O. Box 248, Whitney, Ontario, 263pp.

Kershaw,L (2001) Trees of Ontario, including Tall Shrubs. Lone Pine Publishing, Edmonton, 240pp.

Kershaw,L (2002) Ontario Wildflowers: 101 Wayside Flowers. Lone Pine Publishing, Edmonton, 144pp.

Mandrak,NE and Crossman,EJ (2003) Fishes of Algonquin provincial park. Friends of Algonquin Park, 40pp.

Monkman,D (2002) Nature's Year in the Kawarthas: a Guide to the Unfolding Seasons. Natural Heritage / Natural History Inc., Toronto, 338pp.

Nasmith,C (2012) Hastings ranks in top five fishing comunities. Community Press, p.27, 05 January.

Noxon,P (2002) Field, Forest, Hedgerow. A Hiker's Wildflower Guide for Prince Edward County. Published by Court Noxon, Box 69, Bloomfield, Ontario K0K 1G0, 126pp.

Petherick,W (2021) Reflections on Crowe River; past, present and future. The Tribune, pp.10-11, May.

Tozer,R (2011) Checklist and seasonal status of the birds of Algonquin provincial park. Algonquin Park Tech.Bull. 9, 34pp.

Wernert,SJ (editor) (1982) North American Wildlife. Reader's Digest, 576pp.

Extra on-line reference help:

Government of Canada Biodiversity Pages

Integrated Taxonomic Information System

Andy's Northern Ontario Wildflowers

Connecticut Botanical Society

Ontario Wildflowers

Aquatic Biologists, Inc. (ABI)

Ontario Grasses, Sedges & Rushes

Drew Monkman: Natural History, Kawarthas District

Toronto Zoo - Turtles of Ontario / Turtle Tally

Whats That Bug? (excellent photographs of beautiful to downright weird beasties)

Butterflies and Moths of North America

A Selection of Garden-related sites - "natural" gardens:

Growing Bird-friendly Gardens across Canada

Felix Duchara (Own The Yard) on starting a garden

Renovating your Garden on a Budget

Helping Pollinators in your Garden - Plant Flowers to Help the Bees!

Homeowner's Guide to a Bee-Friendly Backyard and Garden

Tips on Backyard Beekeeping

Creating a Butterfly Garden

Butterflies in Your Playground & Butterfly Gardening

A Tribute To The Monarch Butterfly: How To Turn Your Backyard Into A Butterfly Friendly Habitat

More eco-info: - "An International Spider Community with a North American Focus"

"Spiderz Rule!" - spiders worldwide

Friends of Ferris Park

Friends of Presqu'ile Park

Friends of Presqu'ile Park Weekly Bird Report by Doug McRae

George Barron's Collection of Fungi Images, University of Guelph

Jan Thornhill's "Weird and Wonderful Wild Mushrooms"

and lastly,

A walk in Ferris Park -
a 2-page guide to the park, as seen in early October 2010 (68 kb pdf file)

Graham Wilson, 20 July 2004 / latest additions through 16 June 2024,
with the above links last tested in full on 24 October 2020

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